4. What types of banks can be established in Ukraine?
5. What main services can be provided by Ukrainian banks?
6. Are there any state banks in Ukraine?
7. What are the largest banks in Ukraine?
I. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations in the text and make up sentences of your own with them:
1. прийняття закону
3. проводити політику
4. єдина державна грошова політика
5. забезпечувати стабільність
6. акціонерне товариство
7. розрахунковий банк
9. набувати статусу
11. залучення депозитів
12. кредитування суб'єктів господарської діяльності
13. цінні папери
14. юридична особа
15. видавати ліцензію
16. нормативна постанова
6. bank with foreign capital
f. bank owned by the members and with maximum profit not necessarily the main objective - it may aim, eg, to give low cost loans to members
7. cooperative bank
g. bank that specializes in servicing mortgage loans
8. mortgage bank
h. bank in which the state owns 100 % of the authorized capital
III. Translate into English:
1. Банківська система України складається з Національного Банку України та інших банків, а також філій іноземних банків, що створені і діють на території України.
2. Банки в Україні створюються у формі публічного акціонерного товариства або кооперативного банку.
3. Банки в Україні можуть функціонувати як універсальні або як спеціалізовані.
4. За спеціалізацією банки можуть бути ощадними, інвестиційними, іпотечними та розрахунковими.
5. Банк самостійно визначає напрями своєї діяльності і спеціалізацію за видами операцій.
6. На кінець 2004 року зі 160 банків, які мали ліцензію Національного Банку України на здійснення банківських операцій, 132 банки були акціонерними товариствами.
Reading Text В
THE NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE
The National Bank of Ukraine is the central bank of Ukraine. Legal status, principles of organization and activities of the National Bank of Ukraine are determined by the Constitution of Ukraine and the Law of Ukraine "On the National Bank of Ukraine
The National Bank of Ukraine is a legal entity with separated property, which is the object of the state property. Its authorized capital amounts to UAH 10 million and is the state-owned property which is in the full economic competence of the National Bank.
The governing bodies of the National Bank are the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine and the Board of the National Bank of Ukraine. The Governor of the National Bank is appointed by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on the recommendation of the President of Ukraine for a period of five years. The Governor directs the work of the Board and is a member of the Council. Since the Banks' establishment, the following statesmen were the Governors of the National Bank of Ukraine (initially the title of the position was the Chairman of the Board):
Name In office
Volodymyr Matvienko 1991 - 1992
Viktor Yushchenko 1993 - 1999
Volodymyr Stelmakh 2000 - 2002
Sergiy Tigipko 2002 - 2004
Volodymyr Stelmakh 2004 - present
According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the main function of the National Bank is to ensure stability of Ukraine's monetary unit - the hryvnia. To carry out its major function, the National Bank fosters the stability of the banking system and within its competence, the price stability.
The National Bank of Ukraine also carries out the following functions:
• to determine and pursue the monetary policy;
• to issue the national currency of Ukraine on a monopoly basis and to organize its circulation;
• to act as the lender of last resort for banks and to organize the refinancing system;
• to establish the rules of conducting banking transactions, accounting and reporting, protection of the information, funds and property for the banks;
• to determine the system, procedure and modes of payments, including those between banks;
• to determine the areas of the development of modern electronic banking technologies, to establish, co-ordinate and control the creation of electronic means of payment, payment system, banking automation and the banking information protection facilities;
• to keep the official Register of identification numbers of issuers of payment cards of domestic payment systems;
• to exercise the inspection certification of auditors for conducting audit of banks, temporary administrators and liquidators of a bank;
• to compile, analyze and forecast the balance of payments;
• to represent Ukraine's interests in central banks of other states, international banks and other crediting institutions, where the cooperation takes place at the level of central banks;
• to exercise the currency regulation with the competence to be defined by a special law, to determine the procedure of effecting payments in the foreign currency, to organize and exercise the currency control over the commercial banks and other credit institutions which are in possession of a National Bank's license for the transactions with currency values;
• to ensure the accumulation and custody of the gold and currency reserves and the conduction of transactions with them and the banking metals;
• to analyze the status of the monetary, crediting, financial, pricing and currency relations;
• to organize the collection and transportation of bank notes, coins and other values; to grant licenses for collection and transportation of bank notes, coins and other values;
• to take part in the training of personnel for Ukraine's banking system;
• to exercise other functions in the monetary and crediting sphere within its competence defined by the law.
I. Answer the questions using the information from the text.
1. What are the activities of the NBU determined by?
2. What are the governing bodies of the NBU?
3. Who appoints the Governor of the NBU?
4. What is the main function of the NBU?
5. What does the NBU do to carry out its major function?
6. What other functions does the NBU carry out?
/7. What do you know about the NBU? Which of the following statements are true/false? Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.
1. Legal status, principles of organization and activities of the National Bank of Ukraine are determined by the Constitution of Ukraine.
2. The Council of the National Bank of Ukraine is the governing body of the National Bank.
3. The Governor of the National Bank is appointed by the President of Ukraine.
4. Two persons were the Governors of the NBU twice.
5. According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the main function of the National Bank is to foster the stability of the banking system.
I. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations in the text and make up 10 sentences of your own with them:
1. правовий статус
2. відокремлене майно
3. об'єкт права державної власності
4. статутний капітал
5. керівні органи
6. Рада Національного Банку України
7. Правління Національного Банку України
8. Голова Національного Банку
9. за поданням 10.сприяти
11. монопольно здійснювати емісію валюти
12. кредитор останньої інстанції
13. система рефінансування
14. бухгалтерський облік і звітность
15. визначати порядок і форму платежів
16. електронні банківські технології
17. автоматизація банківської діяльності
18. засоби захисту банківської інформації
19. ідентифікаційний номер емітенту платіжної картки
20. здійснювати сертифікацію
22. платіжний баланс
23. валютне регулювання
24. відповідно до визначених спеціальним законом повноважень
25. накопичення та зберігання
//. Match the words with their synonyms:
1. to consist
3. to foster
5. to regulate
6. to establish
7. to forecast a. fond
b. to encourage
d. to control
e. to provide
f. to predict
8. to ensure
h. to guarantee
j. to compose
III. Complete the sentences below using the verbs in the right tense-form: to
foster, to determine, to compile, to regulate, to establish, to consist of, to ensure, to forecast.
1. We are trying ... a list of suitable people for the job.
2. The activities of credit companies ... by law.
3. My father ... the family business in 1972.
4. The NBU ... that the economy will grow by 2% this year.
5. Their aim is ... better relations within the community.
6. Your parents' income is used ... your level of financial aid.
7. The committee ... 10 members.
8. All the necessary steps have been taken ... their safety.
IV. Change the noun form into the verb and adjective forms. You may need to
use a dictionary.
Example: stability (n) - stabilize (v) - stable (adj)
governor, organization, function, support, development, creation, information, protection, identification, issuer, certification, liquidator, regulation, control, accumulation, conduction, collection.
V. Translate into English:
1. Національний Банк України - це центральний банк України, який координує роботу банківської системи.
2. Будь-яка діяльність Національного Банку України проводиться відповідно до Конституції України і закону "Про банкі і банківську діяльність".
3. Головне завдання Національного Банку України - це забезпечити стабільність української валюти.
4. Національний банк турбується про стабільність банківської системи.
5. Керівними органами Національного Банку є Рада Національного Банку України та Правління Національного Банку України.
VI. Translate the following text into English:
Національний Банк України у відповідності із Законом України "Про Національний Банк України" є центральним банком України, її емісійним центром. Він проводить єдину державну політику в галузі грошового обігу, кредиту, зміцнення грошової одиниці, координує діяльність банківської системи в цілому, визначає курс грошової одиниці відносно валют інших країн. Національний банк визначає вид грошових знаків, їх номінал, відмінні ознаки і систему захисту. Національний Банк України зберігає резервні фонди грошових знаків, дорогоцінні метали та золотовалютні запаси, накопичує золотовалютні резерви і здійснює операції з ними та банківськими металами. Національний Банк України встановлює порядок визначення облікової ставки та інших відсоткових ставок за своїми операціями, дає дозвіл на створення комерційних банків шляхом їх реєстрації та видає ліцензії на виконання банківських операцій.
Speaking and Writing
1. In November 2006, the Rada passed the law that permitted foreign banks to operate branch offices in Ukraine since the country joined the WTO. Is the entry of foreign banks welcome to Ukraine?
2. At the beginning of 2003 the average capital per bank in Ukraine was UAH 64 million ($12 million), whereas Western experts believe that the banks whose capital is less than $50 million are unwanted on the market. What is your point of view concerning small banks?
3. Has the role of the NBU changed over the last years?
4. How does the NBU ensure the banking stability?
5. What problems does the Ukrainian banking system face with?
II. Speak about:
1. The structure of the banking system of Ukraine.
2. The legal status, functions and governors of the National Bank of Ukraine.
III. Write a report/make a presentation on the topics:
1. The largest banks in Ukraine.
2. Banks with foreign capital in Ukraine.
3. Foreign banks in Ukraine.
4. State banks in Ukraine.
5. History of the NBU.
6. The International Activity of the NBU.
Unit III. BANKING IN THE UK
Reading Text A
BANKING SYSTEM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
The UK banking sector is the third largest in the world after the US and Japan. In addition to having one of the largest commercial banking industries, the UK is also a major international center for investment and private banking. The UK banking sector's strong international orientation is reflected in the substantial foreign presence and sizeable assets of foreign banks in London. Virtually all of the world's leading banks have investment and commercial banking offices in the City of London.
The number of authorized banks in the UK totaled to about 690 in 2004. Although the number of UK incorporated banks declined over the past decade there was a significant increase in their average size and financial strength. The total number of authorized banks increased largely due to the growing presence of European Economic Area (EEA) banks.
British banking has been highly consolidated since the early 20th century. And this consolidation increased over the past several years. According to market capitalization, the following are the top six UK banks:
• Standard Chartered
• Royal Bank of Scotland Group
• Lloyds Banking Group
• Co-Operative bank
As expected in a consolidated segment, the UK government owns a controlling stake of 70% of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group and 43% stake of Lloyds Banking Group. However, the functioning of both these banks remains independent of the government. The government controls the National Savings and Investments bank and Northern Rock that was nationalized in 2008, after it was faced with bankruptcy.
Unlike some other major economies, the UK does not have a major stratum of independent local banks. All independent specialized and local banks combined constitute just a small fraction of the size of the smallest of the top six banks.
The other main class of consumer financial service organisation in the United Kingdom used to be the building society. Building societies are mutual organizations owned by their members. Their main business activity is mortgage finance. In 1980s -1990s the majority of them, including the biggest ones Abbey National and Halifax Building Society, converted into joint stock banking companies, and subsequently were acquired by other banks. The largest of the remaining building societies is Nationwide.
Responsibility for the authorization and supervision of banks passed from the Bank of England (central bank of the UK) to the Financial Services Authority (FSA) in June 1998.
The Financial Services Authority is an independent non-governmental body which exercises statutory powers under the Financial Services and Markets Act. The FSA must report annually on the achievement of its statutory objectives to the Treasury, which is required to lay the report before Parliament. The FSMA requires the FSA to pursue four objectives: to maintain confidence in the UK financial system; to promote public understanding of the financial system; to secure an appropriate degree of protection for consumers whilst recognizing their own responsibilities; and to reduce the scope for financial crime.
The Bank of England is responsible for maintaining overall stability of the financial system as a whole. Since its responsibilities for supervising individual banks were transferred to the FSA, the financial stability role of the Bank has been to focus on identifying and limiting systemic financial risk. This involves close monitoring of the financial system infrastructure, particularly payments systems and monitoring economic and financial market developments.
There is a Memorandum of Understanding between the FSA, HM Treasury and the Bank of England which explains how the three authorities should work together towards the common objective of financial stability.
/. Answer the questions using the information from the text.
1. What is the number of authorized banks in the UK?
2. Why did the total number of authorized banks increase largely over the last years?
3. What are the top six UK banks according to market capitalization?
4. Does the government control any banks in the UK?
5. Are there many independent specialized and local banks in the UK?
6. What body is responsible for the authorization and supervision of banks in the UK?
7. What are the four objectives of the FSA?
8. What is the role of the Bank of England?
//. What do you know about the banking system of the UK? Which of the following statements are true/false? Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.
1. The UK banking sector is the largest in the world.
2. Almost all of the world's leading banks have a physical presence in the London market.
3. The total number of authorized banks in the UK declined over the past decade.
4. The government controls four banks in the UK.
5. There are many independent local banks in the UK.
6. Building societies play an important role in the consumer financial services nowadays.
7. The main objective of the FSA is to maintain confidence in the UK financial system.
8. The Bank of England is responsible for the authorization and supervision of banks.
///. Draw up a plan of the text.
I. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations
in the text and make up 10 sentences of your own with them:
1. значні активи
3. уповноважений банк
5. зареєстрований банк
6. контрольний пакет акцій
7. постати перед банкрутством
8. будівельне товариство
9. компанія з обмеженою відповідальністю
11. Управління фінансових послуг
12. неурядова організація
13. здійснювати законні повноваження
14. досягнення статутних цілей
16. переслідувати ціль
17. зберігати довіру
18. сприяти розумінню громадськістю
19. забезпечувати відповідний ступень захисту споживачів
20. визнавати власну відповідальність
21. скоротити можливість
22. підтримка стабільності
23. зосередити увагу на чомусь
24. виявлення та обмеження системного фінансового ризику
II. Find words and phrases in the text that mean:
2. to decrease in quantity
3. to become larger in amount, number
4. joined together into one
5. to make up
6. to change from one form, system to a different one
7. every year
8. an aim that you are trying to achieve
III. Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate words from the list:
acquisition, financial institution, divisions, share, subsidiaries, merger, branches, shareholders.
Lloyds Banking Group pic is a British-based formed through the ... of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in 2009. The UK Government holds a 43% ... in the Group. Lloyds Banking Group's activities are organised into four business ...: Retail Banking (including mortgages), wholesale, insurance, and wealth & international. Lloyds' extensive operations span the globe including the US, Europe, Middle East and Asia.
Lloyds TSB was formed in 1995 by the ... of Lloyds Bank and the Trustee Savings Bank (TSB). The company operated in England and Wales as Lloyds TSB and in Scotland as Lloyds TSB Scotland pic. Its other ... included the mortgage bank Cheltenham and Gloucester, a life assurance company and a finance house.
Following the approval of both the Lloyds TSB and HBOS ..., the takeover was completed on 19 January 2009. The Bank of Scotland brand will remain in Scotland while the Halifax and Lloyds TSB brands will be retained in England & Wales and will each offer different products and pricing.
The Group has announced it will sell Lloyds TSB ... in Scotland, the Cheltenham & Gloucester business and Intelligent Finance as a consequence of the UK Government taking a 43% share in the Group.
Reading Text B
THE BANK OF ENGLAND
The Bank of England (formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England) is, despite its name, the central bank of the whole of the United Kingdom and is the model on which most modern, large central banks have been based. The Bank's headquarters has been located in London's main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734. Hence the Bank is sometimes known by the metonym The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or simply The Old Lady. The Bank of England was founded in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker. The Bank was privately owned and operated from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalized in 1946. In 1997 it became an independent public organisation, wholly-owned by Government, with operational independence over monetary policy.
The roles and functions of the Bank of England have evolved and changed over its three-hundred year history. Today standing at the centre of the UK's financial system, the Bank is committed to promoting and maintaining two core purposes -monetary and financial stability as its contribution to a healthy economy. Monetary stability means stable prices - low inflation - and confidence in the currency. Financial stability is a key ingredient for a healthy and successful economy. People need to have confidence that the system is safe and stable, and that it functions properly. It is also important that problems in particular areas do not lead to wider disruption across the financial system.
The Bank of England performs the following functions of a central bank:
1. note issue
2. government's bank
3. banker's bank
4. lender of last resort
5. management of gold and foreign currency reserves
6. relations with other central banks and international institutions
7. management of the monetary policy
The Bank of England used to be responsible for the supervision of the banking industry, although this responsibility was transferred to the Financial Services Authority in June 1998.
The Bank of England has issued banknotes since 1694. Notes were originally hand-written. They became fully printed from 1855. Until 1928 all notes were "White Notes", printed in black and with a blank reverse. The Bank produces approximately 7.5m new notes every day at its printing works and destroys about the same number. (Coin is issued by the Royal Mint on behalf of the Treasury, and is not a responsibility of the Bank of England.)
The Bank of England acts as banker to the main banks and discount houses who themselves have accounts at the Bank. They need these accounts for two main purposes:
Operational balances to settle the debts each bank owes the others at the end of a day's banking. The banks merely settle their debts with each other through accounts which they maintain at the Bank of England.
Non-operational balances. Since 1981 the banks have had to keep 0.5 % of their total liquid liabilities in accounts with the Bank. These accounts earn no interest; they are designed to control the credit-creating abilities of the banks.
Finally the bank offers highly valued advice to other banks. It keeps the clearing banks informed over its intentions, and the clearers let the Bank know of any potential problems.
This function was the founding principle of the bank. Nowadays the main account of the government, the Exchequer, is kept at the Bank as are the accounts of many departments. One more activity of the Bank of England - management of the National Debt was transferred to the new UK Debt Management Office in 1998.
Lender of last resort
The bank of England serves as the lender of last resort to the financial institutions that are experiencing financial difficulty and cannot obtain credit elsewhere and the collapse of which would have serious implications for the economy.
Management of gold and foreign currency reserves
Britain's gold and foreign currency reserves are held in the Exchange Equalisation Account and are managed by the Bank. By operating this account the Bank is able to influence the value of sterling and other currencies in the foreign exchange market.
It is important for business that the value of the pound is kept reasonably stable. The Bank constantly monitors the value of the pound. It steps into the foreign exchange market and buys pounds with gold and foreign currency when its value is falling, and sells pounds when its value is rising too quickly.
Relations with other central banks and international institutions.
The Bank of England maintains regular contact with other central banks and international organisations to improve the international monetary and financial system.
Management of the monetary policy
The Bank's monetary policy objective is to deliver price stability - low inflation - and, subject to that, to support the Government's economic objectives including those for growth and employment.
/. Answer the questions using the information from the text.
1. What is the central bank of the United Kingdom?
2. When was the Bank of England founded?
3. What is the other name of the Bank of England?
4. When was the Bank of England nationalised?
5. What core purposes does the Bank have?
6. What does monetary stability mean?
7. What does financial stability mean?
8. What are the functions of the Bank of England?
9. Which body is responsible for minting coins?
10. Why is the Bank of England called 'the banker's bank'?
11. What is meant by the term 'the Government's banker'?
12. What does the phrase 'lender of last resort' mean?
13. What is the Exchange Equalisation Account?
14. What is the Bank's monetary policy objective?
15. What are the relations of the Bank of England with other central banks and international institutions?
II. What do you know about the Bank of England? Which of the following statements are true/false? Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.
1. The Bank of England is the central bank of England.
2. The Bank of England is the model on which most modern, large central banks have been based.
3. The Bank of England started as a private bank.
4. The Bank of England was founded in 1694 to act as the banker's bank.
5. The purposes of the Bank of England have remained the same over its three-hundred year history.
6. The Bank of England promotes monetary and financial stability of the country.
7. The Bank of England is responsible for the supervision of the banking industry.
8. The Bank of England has had a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in the UK since 1928.
9. The Bank of England has minted coin since 1694.
10. The Bank of England manages the National Debt.
11. Britain's gold and foreign currency reserves are managed by the Bank of
12. The Bank of England maintains constant relations with international
organizations throughout the world.
I. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations in the text and make up 10 sentences of your own with them:
1. незважаючи на
3. грошово-кредитна політика
5. довіряти, доручати
7. підтримувати, утримувати
8. головна ціль
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